Close Order is the distance soldiers are to take in anticipation
of engaging the enemy. The intent of Close Order is to present
a united front upon which the enemy shall break as a wave on a rock.
There are, however, different interpretations for how close is
'Close Order' between files.
46 centimeters/18 inches from
one soldier to his mate on either side
The Tactiks of Aelian, 1616, John Bingham
(who uses cubits for measuring and refers to Close Order
as 'Shutting.' Like Barriffe, Bingham is specific
as from where to start the measurement: the center of
The A.B.C. of
Armes," 1616, 'J. T. Gent' (most likely a Gentleman with
the initials J. T.)
Souldiers Accidence, 1635, 2nd edition
corrected and edited by G. Markham
The Principles of the Art Militarie, 1637,
Henry Hexham (who says Close Order is for pike only)
For these sources and counsel, Patrick Gaul of the
Renaissance Military Society has been most helpful.
Shoulder to Shoulder
Directions for Musters, 1638, author unknown
(for pike only to make or receive a charge)
Sergeant Subtlelus says:
of how one construes Close in Close Order, that construal may be
utilized only when all in a unit are informed of it and will abide by
it. Accord is best established at the first assembly before
any drill commences.
It may be argued that while musketeers should have sufficient room
to handle their weapons and thus shoulder to shoulder is too
close, it may be advantageous to have pikemen bunched that tightly -
or tighter - for
push of pike. For such, there is